Theories of Early Childhood Development According to Experts

Theories of Early Childhood Development According to Experts
Developmental Theory
Raising theoretical principles in this academic paper is very important to build understanding as an effort to provide good educational services to early childhood education. Various classical theories that exist up to present theories are a long journey how the world of education is always changing to provide the best solution in order to build a noble person who is smart and good (good and smart). Some theories that will be briefly stated include:
Theory of Cognitive Development by Piaget
There are several stages of cognitive development that were initiated by Piaget:
Sensomotor stage (ages 0 to 18 months)
Preoperational Stage (ages 1 month to 6 or 7 years)
Concrete Operational Stage (ages 8 years to 12 years)
Formal Operational Stage (age 12 years to adulthood)

Early childhood aged 4 to 6 years are at this stage. Where children are able to think about objects, events, or other people. The child has begun to recognize symbols in the form of words, numbers, pictures and gestures. But this way of thinking still depends on the concrete object and the present time span, as well as the place where it is located. They have not been able to think abstractly so concrete symbols are needed to be understood by them. For example in introducing numbers must be accompanied by real objects in the form of images or other objects whose numbers correspond to these numbers. In addition, children also have not been able to link the present time with the past.

Theories of Psychosocial Development by Erik Erikson
Erikson (1902-1994) divides these stages of psychosocial development into eight developmental ranges, which in the age range of 3 to 6 years are in the Initiative stage. According to Erikson, this range of initiatives is in the development of emotions. The role of the teacher as an educator must be able to present positive emotions in the process of education. This will help children in managing conflicts that occur due to the clash of positive emotions and negative emotions in their daily relationships that relate between humans and their environment. A child with good emotional development in the previous stage will have the potential to develop positive direction. They are creative, antisius do something, like to experiment, imagine, dare to take risks and like to hang out with fellow friends. But all this depends on the conditions that educators prepared for them. If children love to be praised and their work is appreciated, of course it will foster positive emotions that are useful to strengthen the development of his personality. Conversely, if he likes to be criticized, labeled as a bad boy will naturally emerge negative emotions that will foster guilt in themselves as children. At some point guilt must be present which helps build a sense of responsibility which in propriety will support the growth of good character in children. The more a sense of responsibility grows in children, the sense of initiative will further develop in themselves.

Socio-Cultural Theory by Vygotsky
Vygotsky (1896-1934) strongly agreed with the existence of cultural messages in the learning process at school. He said that the contribution of culture, social interaction, and history in the development of individual mental are very influential, especially in the development of language, reading and writing in children. Culture-based learning and social interaction refers to the development of high mental functions, which are related to socio-historical-cultural aspects. These three things will greatly affect the perception, memory and thinking of children. He advocated the importance of conducting sociocultural interactions as a tool or tool in the learning process at school.