Understanding Formal and Non-Formal Education

Understanding Formal and Non-Formal Education
Character education or character is very effectively applied to the formal education path. "Formal Education is a structured and tiered education pathway consisting of basic education, secondary education and higher education.
Teachers are an important key to realizing character education / character in the context of building the character / character of the nation's children. The teaching profession is very noble, which teaches children from not knowing to knowing, not being good at counting and reading and writing to being good at counting and reading and writing.
Good teacher / lecturer, professional, responsible, who are emulated are teachers / lecturers who are able to live and practice 4 (four) competencies in general, namely:

1) Pedagogic Competence
Understanding educational psychology and student psychology, understanding students according to their level of development, and understanding the profile of teacher peers.

2) Social Competence
Able to adapt to the environment around the school, able to adapt to the wider community, be able to actively participate in activities in the community, and be able to realize social behavior in the community.

3) Personality Competence
Develop personality as a good educator, interact with the surrounding environment, guide students, and set a good example for students and teacher peers.

4) Professional Competence
Mastering educational foundations including psychology of learning, mastering subject matter, preparing teaching and implementing it, evaluating student learning outcomes and learning processes, mastering learning methods and media, and the ability to master and manage classrooms.

i. The Role of Religious Teachers
Religious teachers have a very difficult task in order to educate, foster a person's personality. In essence the role of religious teachers not only teaches what religion is, but deeper than that is more important religious education.

ii. Practice Positive Behavior
It has been explained that students in their infancy are very sensitive to environmental influences, be it the family environment, the school environment or the community environment. The influence of the environment is meant to train the habits of students to do positive actions.

iii. Refinalization of School Rules to Change Student Attitudes
Attitude is a state within humans or individuals associated with observations, feelings and actions to respond to objects outside themselves. The attitude that exists in humans or individuals gives a certain style to the behavior in question. Based on the above understanding, there are 3 components of attitude namely:

a. Observation Component
Observation of an object gives birth to its feelings towards that object and responds to that object. Components of observation can not be separated from knowledge (knowledge) about an object, then assess the object.

b. Feeling component
Components of this feeling can be positive and can be negative towards objects. Positive feelings cause feelings of pleasure or like and vice versa negative feelings will cause feelings of displeasure or dislike.

c. Components of Tendency to Act
The component of the tendency to act is to take action on the object being observed is determined by the feelings and observations of individuals towards an object that either raises feelings of pleasure or pleasure, thus giving birth to positive attitudes such as caring, helpful, light-handed, etc.

iv. School Rules Are Group Norms
The school is a small community group consisting of mostly students, teachers, and other members interacting with each other. Each integrated member has a different attitude because of the different interests of an object. School order is a condition that is designed to be able to regulate and control the attitudes or behavior of individuals or students at school so as to create a safe and peaceful atmosphere at school without interference from both inside and outside. School rules in principle create conditions to prevent negative student behavior or attitudes.

C. Non-Formal Education
"Non-formal education is an educational channel outside of formal education that can be carried out in a structured and tiered way". (Law on national education systems, article 1 (12)).
Non-formal education is actually given to the community as a substitute, supplementary and complementary formal education that serves to develop the potential of students who emphasize mastery and knowledge of functional skills as well as the development of attitudes and professional personality.

Non-formal education includes life skill education, skills education, and others. Education units can be in the form of courses, training institutes, study groups, learning centers, majelis taklim, studios, etc. In a non-formal education environment which is actually loaded with a skills education curriculum filled with activities or practices that provide students with character / character. Leraning by doing in educational institutions, vocational training centers, for example sports education in sports centers, arts education in art galleries, arts theaters, arts and cultural parks, etc. are effective media for character building / character building. In other forums such as the Boy Scouts, Mapala, PMR are proven institutions for building the character of the nation's children.
Non-formal education is an educational activity that comes outside the formal education system aimed at serving students to achieve certain learning goals in order to achieve National education goals. Non-formal education is one of the effective education channels to develop the character / character of the nation's children. Non-formal education both programmed by the government and the community can take place in various places such as: Learning Activity Centers (PKB), Learning Activities Centers (SKB), Youth Education Programs, Adult Education (Androgogy), and Skills Education.